Information on the Eurasian Integration

Eurasian integration is a natural process that stimulates interstate cooperation in the post-Soviet space. For the first time the idea of Eurasianism as a unifying factor of peoples inhabiting the space of the former USSR was declared and theoretically grounded by the Russian knyaz N. Trubetskoi and the prominent historian L.N. Gumilev. Further, that idea gained a political framework.
Nowadays the idea of Eurasianism has been transformed, and has received an updated name with the prefix of neo. For the first time, neo-Eurasianism as a political process was talked about after the proposals of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev on the creation of the Eurasian Union, that was voiced at a lecture of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov in March 1994. By June 1994, the Kazakh side had prepared the main provisions on the Eurasian Union that were sent to the governments of all CIS countries.
However, at that time, most of the elites of the CIS countries and especially of Russia still did not share the beliefs aimed at creating any serious integration association in the post-Soviet space. In this sense, we see the political foresight and foreknowledge of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbayev.
Nevertheless, starting with the second half of the 1990s, multilateral economic cooperation gradually began its work, first within the CIS Customs Union creation (1999), and later, since 2000s, within the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC). It should be noted that not all CIS countries supported the idea of Eurasian integration. The locomotive countries that consistently defended and promoted the idea of implementing integration processes were the Republic of Kazakhstan (the initiator), the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. In different years, the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Republic of Tajikistan, Armenia and the Kyrgyz Republic also contributed to the formation and development of integration of this cooperation.
However, by the beginning of the 2000s, the Eurasian Economic Community, by 2006, could no longer satisfy the interests of the participating countries, in view of the expansion of conscientious trade, the movement of capital and other resources.
By that time, a number of countries had been proposed to reconsider the principles of work within the EurAsEC and to deepen economic integration by creating a Customs Union (CU), this time on the basis of the EurAsEC. The movement towards the establishment of a functioning EurAsEC Customs Union began in 2006-2007 and was institutionalized in November 2009 with the signing of a joint document - the Customs Code (that entered into force in 2010), which was designed to regulate and simplify the movement of goods, capital , services and people through the removal of customs barriers between the participating countries of the process.
At that time, only three states managed to bring their normative documents into a single standard and sign a treaty on the creation of the Customs Union, they were the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. With the introduction of the provisions of the Customs Code, the integration processes had been accelerated, and it was also related to the global and regional economic conjuncture and new global challenges, that could be responded only by deepening joint economic integration of participating countries.
Thus, in 2010, there had begun discussions of the next stage of Eurasian integration, namely, the creation of the Common Economic Space (CES) of the three countries of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. After long discussions, there were introduced 17 agreements regulating the functioning of the SES that were approved by the heads of the three states, which came into force on January 1, 2012.
Eurasian integration has passed the stages of its formation and development within the framework of the consistent creation of the Customs Union and the Single Economic Space. And by 2011 there had been a joint desire of the leaders of Kazakhstan, Belarus and Russia to go further and outline a plan for the introduction of the next stage of integration - the creation of an economic union.
In November 2011, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Russia announced the creation of the Eurasian Commission, in fact the first supranational body of economic integration. There was also introduced the concept of "Eurasian economic integration". That was the very time when the practical implementation of future economic union foundation began, and the international legal framework of which was to go beyond the functioning EurAsEC.
By the spring of 2014, many principal points of the political, legislative, trade-economic, humanitarian plan were agreed upon and there was reached a consensus on a number of controversial aspects of the creation of economic union of states. As a result, in May 2014 in Astana presidents of Kazakhstan, Belarus and Russia signed an agreement on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAU). This economic union was put into effect on January 1, 2015 after ratification by the parliaments of the participating countries.
Already on January 2, 2015 Armenia joined the EEU, and on August 12 of the same year, the agreement on joining the EEU was signed by Kyrgyzstan. Also on April 14, 2017, Moldova received the status of the observer country in the EEU. The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union is a structurally complex document. The contract includes 4 parts, 28 sections, 118 articles and 33 annexes. The agreement on the EEU is in fact the constituent instrument of a regional economic organization that has international legal personality.